History of Japan

This week, we cover a crime wave that shocked 1980s Japan, and proved that postwar society was perhaps not quite all it was cracked up to be. Also, there's a lot of poisoned candy. 

Direct download: Episode_221.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we investigate the great Zen master Dogen, who was something of an eccentric in his own time but remains one of the greatest Buddhist thinkers in Japanese history. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_220.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Turns out, getting involved in a land war in Asia really is one of the classic blunders.

This week, how did it all pan out?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_219.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

How did Japan fit into the broader framework of the Allied intervention? What were the Japanese trying to accomplish in Siberia? And who was even in charge of this damned thing? All that and more, this week. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_218.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

100 Years ago, Japan intervened in Russia to create a buffer state against the new Soviet Union. So how did that work out? We'll start answering that question this week. 

Direct download: Episode_217.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: why is a military failure worth 7 episodes of our time? The legacy of the Mongol invasions of Japan, explained. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_216.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

The 1281 invasion is at the gates (or the seawall, I suppose). How will round 2 play out?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_215.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we prepare for round two. How are the Japanese getting ready for another invasion, and how does that new invasion begin?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_214.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we cover exciting topics like meteorology and internal Mongol family politics! But wait, there's also a bit of Zen theology dashed in to spice things up!

 

It's an eclectic week on the podcast for sure!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_213.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week I promise we'll actually get to the 1274 invasion. But first, how were the samurai who defended Japan organized, and what weapons did they use?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_212.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: why did Kublai go to Japan? A quick overview of the tensions that led to the first invasion, and a look at the armies of Mongols and Chinese that would fight it. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_211.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: where did the Mongol Empire come from, and who was in charge when they decided to come after Japan? Also, why is the Kamakura shogunate the most convoluted form of government in a history of convoluted governments?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_210.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Today, we wrap our look at immigrants from Japan with a brief discussion of Nikkei communities in the Philippines and China, and with a look at Japan's own attempts to have Nikkei return "home."

Direct download: History_of_Japan_209.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: why did the American government think it was necessary to round up Nikkei on the West Coast? And what did that policy mean for the people who actually lived it?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_208.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we're headed south to take a look at Nikkei communities in Brazil and Peru. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_207.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we take a closer look at early communities of Nikkeijin -- people of Japanese descent -- in the United States and Hawaii.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_206.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we begin a new series on the Japanese diaspora!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_205.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week we tackle the question of Japanese fascism by looking at one of Japan's foremost fascists, the authoritarian scholar Kita Ikki. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_204.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: one of Japan's most famous Buddhist masters, Kukai, takes center stage!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_203.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Today we discuss Japan's greatest artistic genius, Katsushika Hokusai!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_202.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: Japan's a pretty verdant place, but how did it stay that way when so many other places were ravaged by human development?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_201.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

All you could ever want to know about podcast recording, UW's graduate program, and why the Japanese definitely are not part of the 10 lost tribes of Israel! That and more! 

Thank you all for 200 great episodes!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_200.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

In which we bring things to a close by considering the fall of the Butokukai, the spread of budo beyond Japan, the role of martial arts in the African-American community, the question of Olympic sport status, and the challenge of the UFC. It's gonna be a busy week.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_199.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: can a martial art be a philosophy of life? Can it rise to the level of a religion? 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_198.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: karate comes to mainland Japan (and gets a rebrand in the process), and the Butokukai's attempts to militarize the martial arts backfire when the Americans come to town.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_197.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: the rise of judo and of the modern budo, and karate strikes back!

 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_196.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: who wants to swing a sword when you can just shoot a gun?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_195.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: where do Japan's traditional martial arts come from? 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_194.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: what are three educated women to do in a society that doesn't value their education?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_193.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: the beginning of a two parter on Japan's first ever female exchange students. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_192.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: what, in the end, did the Occupation mean -- for both the occupied and the occupier? 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_191.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: what was it like to live through the Occupation? How did people get by? And why is Kurosawa Akira objectively the greatest director ever? 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_190.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: the social reforms of the Occupation. Economic policy, education policy: it's like our very own C-SPAN screening! 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_189.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we talk about what it took to make a peace on paper a peace in fact. With millions of Japanese civilians and soldiers scattered across Asia, what would it take to get them all home again?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_188.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we discuss the course of the Tokyo War Crimes Trials and their legacy in Japan. How did they go from a vision of international optimism to despised by people on both sides of the political spectrum?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_187.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 9:16am PST

This week, we'll begin a discussion of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, better known as the Tokyo War Crimes Trials. Who is being tried, what for, and why? 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_186.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: where did Japan's constitution come from, and how the hell did it get done in only six days?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_185.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

The Occupation begins! This week, we'll set the stage with a focus on the relationship between Supreme Commander Douglass MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_184.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 1:12pm PST

This week, we turn our attention to the US Occupation of Japan. When did Americans first start thinking seriously about taking Japan over and remaking its whole society?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_183.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we're doing a biography of the little known Buddhist socialist Seno'o Giro. How do you reconcile Buddhism and Marx? Find out this week!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_182.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we round out our look at the hard left in Japan. Militant communist uprisings (if less than 100 people counts as an uprising), electoral maneuvering, recycling policy -- this episode has it all. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_181.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: the Japanese left is relegated to permanent opposition status in the postwar period. How did the revolutionary moment come to this?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_180.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, the floodgates are open! The system has fallen, and the left is poised to seize power...or not!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_179.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 9:00am PST

Today, a specter is haunting Japan. But that specter is not communism; it's the ghost of the communist party, dead before it truly lived. This week on the podcast: how to kill a communist party in a few easy steps. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_178.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

The revolution comes to Japan...but not really. Today we explore the birth and very rapid death of Japan's first socialist party, and the rise of its communist movement.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_177.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 8:50am PST

Today, we'll turn our attention to a set of ideas that will ultimately fall flat on their face in Japan (and most other places): Marxism. How did the hard left come to Japan? And before that, what even is Marxism? 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_176.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 5:00am PST

This week, it's time for Japan's first party politician: Hara Takashi. Was he a populist hero or a wannabe elite? And in the end, does that even really matter?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_175.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we explore the history of one of Japan's most popular art forms: kabuki theater. Major themes include prostitution, Tokugawa era morality laws, stagecraft, prostitution, and the superiority of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine over The Next Generation. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_174.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Today, we'll wrap up our look at the Russo-Japanese War with some thoughts on its long term consequences. How much of an impact can a war that lasted for a year and a half really have?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_173.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Apologies for the technical delay! Today, we'll watch Russia descend into chaos, and take a look at the peace negotiations that result as both sides realize they can't keep this war up. 

Direct download: History_of_Japan_172.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 7:20am PST

It's time for the Imperial Japanese Navy to bail out the Imperial Japanese Army. But first, let's enjoy the Russian Baltic Fleet's Party Cruise to the Pacific!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_171.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 8:04am PST

In the last major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, two great powers enter and...two great powers leave? Wait, I'm confused. How are the Japanese winning every battle and still not winning the war?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_170.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

The Russians retreat, the Japanese advance, the losses pile up. Things are starting to get a bit worrisome for the Japanese army; could they potentially win every battle and still lose the war?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_169.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:30am PST

This week: the Port Arthur campaign, from start to finish. Wasn't this supposed to be a cakewalk?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_168.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 6:00am PST

The war rages on as the Japanese land in Port Arthur and press the attack, and Oyama Iwao advances north. The Russians will attempt to make a stand as divisions open up in their leadership.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_167.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:02pm PST

Today, we're starting a war! The battle for Manchuria begins as Japan and Russia confront each other on land and at sea for the first time. But will the daring Japanese plan to win the war quickly pay off? 

 

Well....kind of. 

Direct download: Episode_166.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:46pm PST

This week -- negotiations between the two sides begin in St. Petersburg, but neither Japan nor Russia is really committed to peacefully working things out. In Imperial Japanese Army HQ, the first steps towards an actual plan for war are formulated: but how to neutralize the many advantages Russia holds?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_165.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we're going to cover the incompatible goals that led Japan and Russia towards war. Why did each side see the other as a threat? Why was war even on the table in the first place? Can't we all just get along?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_164.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 5:30am PST

This week, we're turning our attention to the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. In our first episode, we'll introduce our stage -- Manchuria -- and our players -- Russia and Japan.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_163.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we close out this series with a look at the relationship between South Korea and Japan. Also included; Isaac's patented speed run of South Korean history. Enjoy!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_162.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we discuss Japan's relationship with the modern day Hermit Kingdom, and to explain North Korean policy and how those policies effect Japan. It's gonna be a long ride into the web of madness that is the world's only communist monarchy, so grab your Kim Il-sung pins and strap in!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_161.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, it's time to join the resistance. We'll trace the birth of the Korean resistance from protests in 1919 to its bifurcation into two rival movements. The first, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, will be based in Shanghai and dominated by the charismatic American-educated Syngman Rhee. The second will be an armed anti-Japanese insurrection in Manchuria led by a man whose life is more myth than fact: Kim Il-sung.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_160.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week -- what was colonial Korea like? We'll do a quick overview of 35 years of colonial economic, political, and social policy to give you a feel for what Japan's goals in Korea were and how those goals effected the lives of ordinary Koreans.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_159.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, the Korean Kingdom's final years see the desperate bid of King Gojong to salvage Korea's independence. Ultimately, however, Korea's royal family will be unable to save itself, and in 1910 Korea's independence will be snuffed out completely for the first time since the era of Kublai Khan.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_158.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, a three way competition for control of Korea between Japan, China, and Russia heats up! Factional fighting in the Korean court will drag Japan and China into conflict; in the end, the Koreans themselves are sidelined when it comes to controlling their own fate.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_157.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 9:55am PST

This week, Korea encounters the West. We'll introduce the early Western forays into Korea, explain how Japan came to sign the first unequal treaty with its neighbor, and look into the factionalization of the Korean royal court.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_156.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: we get up to speed on Korean history, so that we can begin exploring the turbulent Korean-Japanese relationship. Pirates, coups, Mongols, poetry battles -- we've got it all!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_155.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: what happens when Buddhists go to war? We'll explore the relationship between the Japanese Empire and the Zen Buddhist establishment.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_154.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we conclude our series on the rise of the samurai with murder, intrigue, political reform, and gratuitous Game of Thrones references.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_153.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 9:00am PST

The Genpei War comes to a close in this action packed episode! Kyoto will fall! The Taira will burn! Oxen will be deployed as tactical weapons!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_152.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we let slip the dogs of war as Japan plunges into a new phase of conflict. Though Prince Mochihito will not make it out of 1180, the rebellion he starts will catch on in eastern Japan. Young Minamoto no Yoritomo, with some prodding from his new father-in-law/captor, will rise up to assume his birthright as leader of the Minamoto (but not without some controversy).

Direct download: History_of_Japan_151.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

We're live, folks! Sorry for the delay. It's time for the career of Taira no Kiyomori, the man whose talent and ambition was matched only by his temper and his ego.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_150.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 7:28am PST

This week: patricide, rebellions, and royal incest. Oh, also the increasing destabilization of the Heian government as ever more power falls into the hands of Taira no Kiyomori.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_149.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: the Taira family continue their rise to prominence, the Minamoto get stuck spinning their wheels for a few decades, and warrior violence makes its way to Kyoto.

All that, plus the hottest court gossip of the 1120s, this week.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_148.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, Minamoto no Yoshiie establishes the power of the Seiwa Minamoto family, upsetting a careful balance of power. Also, he drops the hottest rhymes of

Direct download: History_of_Japan_147.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 8:35am PST

This week, we'll be starting a short series about the advent of the samurai class. First, what came before the samurai, and why did Japan's emperors decide to devolve more and more power to provincial warriors?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_146.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 3:30am PST

What does organized crime look like in modern Japan, and why does anybody put up with it? Also, how many rocket launchers can you buy with 50 pounds of amphetamines?

All that and more, this week.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_145.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Someday, and that day may never come, I'll call upon you to do a service for me. But until that day, accept this episode as a gift on my podcast's release day. 

Pull off your shirt to reveal your gang tattoos, it's time for the yakuza!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_144.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 7:58pm PST

This week, we talk about how views of Nanjing have shifted since WWII, and where the modern right-wing revisionists came from.  Why are we still talking about a massacre from 80 years ago?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_143.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we look at the events of the Nanjing Massacre. Just what happened in China's capital city in December, 1937?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_142.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Today we're going to talk about Japan's relationship with nuclear power and the catastrophic events of March, 2011. Why did Japan become so reliant on nuclear energy? Why did all the safeguards in place fail so badly in 2011? And where on earth do we go from here?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_141.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we'll talk about the birth of the Japanese space program. From its origins as the brainchild of a former weapons designer and a borderline pyromaniac, the programs now incorporated into JAXA (the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) have accomplished some of the most amazing technical feats of the 20th and 21st century. How did they do it, and why? And what's changing now with the rise of China?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_140.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: conscription in Japan. What's it like to be conscripted into the Imperial Japanese Army? How are conscripts treated, and what are the goals of the conscription system?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_139.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Aaand we're done. This week, some final thoughts on the period and its key players before we put the Meiji Restoration to bed for good! Be sure to get in touch and tell me what you thought of the series.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_138.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we turn to the final drama of our series -- the samurai rebellions that will break out in final defense of 1000 years of samurai tradition. As the group of leaders who had overthrown the Tokugawa becomes ever smaller, the final course of Japan will be set. From this point on, what the new Japan will look like will be clear.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_137.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, Saigo Takamori is going to sidetrack the whole government by pulling the idea of invading Korea off the shelf, sparking a political crisis. Once the dust from this debate has settled, the political landscape will have changed once again, and the battle lines for a final showdown over the fate of Japan will be drawn.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_136.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we cover the major issues of the new government. Who's in charge? What do they want to do? And what could possibly go wrong if we just take half the leadership off for a two year trip?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_135.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we take a look at the new balance of power now that the Tokugawa are gone. Who's calling the shots? What do they want? And most importantly of all, now that the war is over, will we all be resolving our differences with calm discussion like a bunch of grownups?

 

Spoilers: no.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_134.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week: the "short-lived" part of "the short-lived Ezo Republic" comes to fruition, and what is now Meiji Japan begins dealing with a new issue. Now that the Tokugawa are finally gone, what comes next?

Direct download: History_of_Japan_133.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we'll cover the military campaigns of 1868. Edo will (surprisingly anticlimactically) fall, the north will rebel, and Matsudaira Katamori's domain of Aizu will be overrun after a brutal two month siege. In the end, only the small splinter territory of the Ezo Republic will be left standing.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_132.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

In early 1868, the armies of the loyalists and the Tokugawa bakufu will clash outside Kyoto. We'll discuss the factors that led to the Battle of Toba-Fushimi, and why what was supposed to be a walk in the park for the Tokugawa turned into a complete disaster.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_131.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we cover 1867: the final year of the Tokugawa shogunate (sort of). Caught between a loyalist rock and an imperial hard place, Tokugawa Yoshinobu will consider the unthinkable: resignation, and an end to 260 years of bakufu tradition.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_130.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 11:28pm PST

Choshu vs the Tokugawa, round 2! Only two years after being defeated by the Tokugawa, Choshu is back at war with Japan's leading family. This time, they've got far more cards to play, though. Can Choshu defeat the Tokugawa and put them into a slow death spiral from which they will never recover?  Hint: yes!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_129.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

Not even a dead motherboard can stop me; 1865 is just too important for us to talk about! This week: Civil Wars, gunrunning, and important financial tips (hint: become an arms dealer) as we continue the march to the fall of the Tokugawa!

Direct download: History_of_JApan_128.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

1864 is probably the most important year in the Meiji Restoration that nobody really has heard of; the Tokugawa will come as close to winning their fight for control of Japan as they ever will, and the shishi movement will end up on the ropes. So, how did the Tokugawa stage such an effective comeback, and why did Tokugawa victories end up laying the groundwork for Tokugawa defeats down the line? All that and more, this week!

Direct download: History_of_Japan_127.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, we'll move into the tumultuous events of 1863. Challenges foreign and domestic are going to upset the balance of power that has existed since the death of Ii Naosuke, and drive Japan ever closer to civil war.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_126.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 5:51pm PST

This week, we'll move into the messy early/mid 1860s and look at the doomed attempt to bridge the gap between the Tokugawa and the Imperial Court. We'll also look at the situation in Kyoto, which was growing more violent by the day.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_125.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST

This week, the turbulent politics following the death of Ii Naosuke will result in the rise of one of the most famous symbols of the late Tokugawa era: the shishi, or men of spirit. These shishi groups, radicalized by the political trials of recent years, will introduce a degree of violence to Japanese politics not seen in generations, and pave the way for a fundamental change in Japanese politics.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_124.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 1:48pm PST

This week, Ii Naosuke will try to right the ship of state by any means necessary. However, his reassertion of Tokugawa authority will run into serious problems as the violence surrounding politics begins to ramp up.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_123.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 2:00am PST

This week, we explore the beginnings of opposition against the bakufu. The Harris Treaty will prove deeply divisive, and before long two factions of daimyo will develop opposing and supporting it. Locked in a stalemate, the two sides turn to a place that had been isolated from politics for nearly 1000 years: the imperial court and its young emperor Komei in Kyoto.

Direct download: History_of_Japan_122.mp3
Category:History -- posted at: 4:00am PST